Step Up Approach in The Management of Pediatric Allergic Rhinitis

  • Nina Irawati Allergy Immunology Division, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital – Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia
  • Muhammad Irfan Ata Ul Awal Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia
Keywords: Pediatric allergic rhinits, Prevention, EUFOREA guidlines, Antihistamines, Intranasal corticosteroid, Allergenic immunotherapy, Probiotics


Allergic rhinitis (AR) is clinically characterized by two or more symptoms including itching, sneezing, nasal obstruction and rhinorrhoea. It is known to be caused by IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction in response to inhaled allergens. It has been shown to have high burden of disease, as patients with AR show significant reductions in the number of healthy days, interruption of daily activities due to symptoms, and overall reduction in quality of life. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) estimates the prevalence of AR across children and adults to be about 10-30% in the United States (US) and other developed countries. Allergic rhinitis negatively impacts quality of life directly through, or from the consequences of, its symptoms such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, impaired learning and cognitive functions, leading to reduction in productivity, worsened school performances and may also lead to embarrassment.


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How to Cite
Irawati, N., & Awal, M. I. A. U. (2024). Step Up Approach in The Management of Pediatric Allergic Rhinitis . Journal Of The Indonesian Medical Association, 74(2), 47 - 50.
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